Otitis Externa

Otitis externa is inflammation of ear. There are otitis externa, otitis media and otitis interna.

Otitis Interna

Otitis interna is inflammation of labyrinth inside the ear.

It may be caused by bacterial or viral infections. Bacterial infection is more dangerous. It can develop after meningitis or an infectious inflammation in middle ear.

Its symptoms include:

  • Dizziness
  • Sudden dizziness accompanied by nausea is possible
  • Hearing loss
  • Sound in ears

Diagnosing Otitis Interna

Since dizziness may be a symptom of many other illnesses, to determine the reason for otitis interna certain lab tests may be done.

  • Audiometry exam (tests if you have hearing disorders)
  • Auditory brainstem response test (checks normal work of nerve going from inner ear)
  • MRT and computed tomography (to check for abnormalities in brain)
  • Electronystagmography (check for movements of eyes)

Treating Otitis Interna

As a rule, the symptoms of otitis interna clear up by themselves. Treatment includes:

  • Antibiotics (are prescribed if bacterial infection; antibiotics do not help treat viral infections)
  • Anti-inflammatory medications
  • Antiemetic drugs
  • Sedative drugs
  • Antihistamine drugs

Otitis Externa

Otitis externa is inflammation of outer ear.

It may have two forms, either a pimple in the ear of total inflammation of the ear.

Causes for otitis externa include:

  • Infection (often staphylococcus of fungus)

Causative factors for otitis externa include:

  • Making damages in the outer ear skin by putting matchsticks and other objects into ears
  • Water exposure. (Water encourages infections to develop in a tiny wound)
  • Earwax (people start scratching in their ear)
  • Eczema (ear forms scales or erosions)
  • Lowered immune system (as a result of different diseases, such as diabetes, hypovitaminosis or podagra)
  • Chronic otitis externa
  • Narrowed ear canal

Symptoms of otitis externa include:

  • Earache and pain around ear
  • Swelling of ear canal
  • Pus
  • Itch (characteristic in eczema or fungus)
  • Plugged ear

Otitis Media

Otitis media is inflammation of ear canal. Ear canal is cavity between outer ear and eardrum.

Causes for otitis media include:

  • Mainly infection. It may come in the ear through different ways:

· From the upper airway on hearing tubes, also known as Eustachian tubes and on mucous membrane of the ear canal. As a result, swelling and narrowing of ear canal occurs. It leads to loss of pressure control and a person has plugged ear.

Through labyrinth

Through blood

Through injured skin of ear canal

There are several types of otitis media. They include:

Acute Otitis Media is usually caused by infection. In the beginning, ear inflammation occurs. Then, perforation of eardrum and drainage of pus occur. In the third stage, the inflammatory process reduces and edges of the skin of the eardrum start growing together.

Symptoms include:

  • In the first stage, pain in ear, teeth and temperatures, hearing loss.
  • In the second stage, drainage of pus, less pain (getting worse if the pus-drainage delays), temperature is getting lower
  • Hearing loss

Chronic suppurative otitis media often results from acute suppurative inflammation. Insufficient treatment of acute otitis media may promote the disease.

Symptoms include:

  • Hearing loss
  • Long-lasting drainage of pus
  • Permanent perforation of eardrum

There are different types of the condition depending on the location of the hole on drum. The hole may be in the middle, in the upper side and in both sides on the eardrum. The conditions have different manifestations.

Adhesive otitis media is marked by eardrum becoming severely retracted. It may result from acute or chronic inflammation. Inflammatory processes in the upper airway may also cause the conditions. The eardrum becomes too thin, scarring and less mobile.

Symptoms:

  • Deafness
  • Sound in ears

Otitis media exsudativa occurs due to ventilation and drainage disorder in the auditory tube. It may come from different acute or chronic inflammatory processes in the upper airway, acute respiratory infections and allergies. In such otitis, eardrum cavity is full of fluid. The fluid may have different composition liquid, thick and viscid.

Symptoms include:

  • Hearing loss
  • Stuffy ears
  • Feeling of fluid moving inside ear