Renal Failure

Kidneys sustain chemical balance inside the body. Renal failure or renal insufficiency is a kidney condition, when kidneys fail to do their function in right way totally or partially. It results in fluid, nitrogen and electrolyte metabolism dysfunction. For instance, nitrogen metabolism products – uric acid, urea – are not removed from the body.

There are acute renal failure and chronic renal failure.

Acute Renal Failure

This is an abrupt dysfunction of one or both kidneys. Renal tubule, nephron, glomeruli are affected.

Causes of Renal Failure

  • Toxic effect on kidneys of mushroom poisoning, arsenic, mercury, medicine
  • Infections
  • Kidney diseases (nephritis, pyelonephritis)
  • Traumatic and burn shock
  • Hemotransfusion and surgical shock
  • Urinary tract blockage

Symptoms of Acute Renal Failure

  • Oliguria, or scanty urination
  • Anemia
  • Fluid, electrolyte, acid-base balance
  • Cardio-vascular condition
  • Short breath caused by pulmonary edema
  • Tiredness, slow mental processing
  • Muscle twitch

Diagnostic Procedures

  • Medical history
  • Catheterization
  • Ultrasound
  • Computed tomography
  • Cystoscopy

Treatment for Acute Kidney Failure

In many cases it is treatable. The treatment is aimed to eliminate the reason of the disease (shock, poisoning, etc.) and defective metabolism. Hemodialisis, hemofiltartion, and other forms of treatment are used.

Chronic Kidney Failure

Chronic kidney failure is marked by decrease of nephrons in amount and performance.

Causes of Chronic Kidney Failure

  • Kidney diseases (chronic glomerulonephritis, chronic pyelonephritis, amiloidosis)
  • Metabolism conditions (diabetes, gout)
  • Cardio-vascular diseases
  • Urinary tract blockage
  • Toxic effect on kidneys (mercury, lead, medicine)

Symptoms of Chronic Kidney Failure

  • Fatigue
  • Sleep problems
  • Depression
  • Itch
  • Chronic hypertension
  • Polyuria (excessive secretion of urine), that changes into oliguria
  • Polyneuritis

Treatment for Chronic Kidney Failure

  • Diet (less protein, limited sodium consumption)
  • In hypertension – taking blood-pressure lowering drugs
  • Keeping normal blood electrolytes level
  • Hemodialysis
  • As needed kidney transplantation