Ovarian Cyst

Cyst is a pathological fluid-filled growth in body. The name derives from Greek kystis ‘bubble’.

Ovarian cyst is non-cancerous tumour. Young women often form them, rarely women over age 40.

Reasons

Women develop ovarian cysts for many reasons. The most common include:

  • Hypothyreosis
  • Follicular maturation disorders
  • Abortions
  • Early start of menstrual cycle
  • Endocrine disorders

Symptoms

Often cysts do not do any symptoms. They are found usually during ultrasound screening. But the following symptoms may be present:

  • Pains (for example, when cyst is ruptured due to blood flow or pressure of nearby organs)
  • Belly is too large (due to big size of cyst and excessive amount of fluid inside abdomen)
  • Signs of pressure of nearby organs (problems when urinating or digesting, varicous veins, when leg vessels are pressed)
  • Abnormal periods (if growth produces hormones) 

Diagnosing Ovarian Cyst

  • Gynecological exam (doctor can find out reason for abdominal pain and enlarged appendages)
  • Ultrasound (most preferred, reliable and informative method enabling to follow development of cyst)
  • Laparoskopy (reliable method of diagnosis and treatment)
  • Blood test may be done to find out if tumour is cancerous
  • Computed tomography enables to find out location, sizes and cancerousness.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging
  • Cystic puncture (doctor can find out if blood is inside cyst or what kind of fluid is in there)

Treating Ovarian Cyst

The choice of treatment option depends on many factors – patient’s age, cancerousness of the growth, symptom manifestation, wish to save ability to give birth.

Conservative treatment is possible if tumour does not develop pus or if it is not ruptured.