Martopathy is a diseases caused by hormonal imbalance in the breasts. It is characterized by unequal proliferation of connective tissue within breasts, forming little cysts and widening ducts. Usually, it occurs in both breasts, but the process may be unequal in both sides.
A range of factors cause mastopathy. They may be put into eight kinds.
- Reproductive system dysfunction
- Disorders in sexual life and mood (stresses, depressions)
- Hormonal metabolic changes (lack of iodine in the body)
- Gynecological conditions (inflammation of uterine appendages)
- Chronic conditions of other parts and systems of the body (specifically thyroid conditions, diseases of liver, gall bladder, diabetes, obesity, vascular conditions)
- Genetic factors (family history)
- Environment and lifestyles (abortions, breast injuries, use of alcohol, cigarette smoking, radiation effects, absent or late pregnancy, breastfeeding time is too short)
Kinds of Mastopathy
Usually, there are two types of masthopaty nodular and diffuse cystic masthopaty. In nodular mastopathy nodules occur in the breasts. In diffuse cystic mastopathy, in breast tissue plenty of little proliferations without distinct limits occur. Mixed forms may occur. The distinction enables to select a treatment option. Nodular mastopathy often may develop into cancer. One should get diagnostic tests to rule out cancer. In diffuse cystic mastopathy, patients have regular physical exams and conservative treatment.
Mastopathy is manifested by:
- Pain in the breast (permanent or connected to the cycle), often occurs before menstruation
- Nodules or proliferations in the breast
- Fluid discharge from the nipples (from colourless to dark green). Meanwhile, in the breast takes place:
- Proliferation of connective tissue and glandular tissue and indurated nodules form
- Cysts form (one or several)
Now it is essential that each woman over age 35 to have regular checks for breasts once a year. Mastopathy is diagnosed based on clinical data, scan, x-ray, and other diagnostic measures.
Clinical method of diagnosis is the most common. It includes analysis of history data, physical exam and breast palpation. Yet following diagnosing methods can be done:
- Physical exam and palpation for the breasts
- Physical exam and palpation for thyroid to evaluate its state and possible link to the condition
- Palpation of the upper section of the spinal cord to rule out neurological background for pain in the breast
- Mammography – breast x-ray
- Scan for breast in addition to mammography or as a substitute for mammography if it is contraindicated
- Cytological study of samples taken from a punctured breast, lymphatic nodes and discharges from the nipples.
Nodular mastopathy is treated by surgical resection.
Diffuse cyst mastopathy implies conservative treatment.