Thyroid Conditions

shitovidnaya_jeleza_en.jpgThyroid can have different conditions.

Overactive thyroid, or hyperthyroidism, is excessive function of thyroid. In this case, thyroid secretes thyroid hormones T3 and T4 excessively.

Symptoms are eyelid and finger tremor, irritability, nervousness, increased heart rate, weight loss.

Patients are started medication (radioiodine). Sometimes they have surgery. Prevention: healthy eating.


Underactive thyroid, or hypothyroidism, is decreased function of thyroid. Thyroid does not produce enough hormones. People living in cold regions and those with diseases of the internal parts of the body are affected.

Symptoms: fatigue, sleeplessness, headaches.

Patients are given outpatient complex treatment.

Graves’ disease is a very common thyroid condition. Goitre is excessive swelling of thyroid. The common reason is lack of iodine in the diet.

Symptoms are similar to those in overactive thyroid, which often precedes Graves’ disease. Symptoms include also nausea, vomiting and enlarged eye.

Patients have medication treatment, but they also may have surgery as needed.

To prevent the disease avoid viral and chronic infections starting the disease.


Nodular goiter is very common. It is found in 5% to 10% of population, mainly in women. It is a nodular swelling of thyroid. They may be different in size. They can be seen in scanning and palpation.

Symptoms are usually absent.

Patients have surgical treatment.

Thyroid cancer is a very uncommon cancer. Most often it is preceded by non-cancerous thyroid growths. Cancer occurs in the bottom of the gland. It is not felt in the beginning, but then it is growing blocking airways. In some cases it presses food pipe which induces difficulty swallowing.

Patients usually have operation.

Eating iodine-rich foods will help prevent thyroid cancer. These include iodised salt and pickled laminaria. Avoid direct reaching of radiation towards your throat and head.