Guides for Those Who Have STI
How to Determine the signs of STI on Self
Many diseases have no definite symptoms. If they are, one should have a special medical education to be able to determine and describe them. Some signs may point a person has an STI.
- Itch, discomfort, burning, cutting pains in urethra or vagina
- Frequent or painful urination
- Any discharges from urinary tract
- Any kinds or rash on genitals
- Any rash on abdomen, palms, foot soles and mucous membrane of mouth
- Enlarged lymph nodes
Signs of Complications with STIs Include:
- Heaviness, pricking pain in lower abdomen, in perineum and testes
- Irregular menstrual cycle
- Difficulty with urination
- Premature or delayed ejaculation
- Different amount and colour of semen
A person with STI may not have symptoms therefore they should see a doctor in following cases:
- If they have had a casual sex without condom. Even symptomless. A person should get tested after any kind of sex (oral, anal, genital)
- If an STI was found in a partner
In some cases (in planning a baby) a screening for an STI is recommended in order to find out a possible disorder and timely treatment for it (for instance, before conception).
Where Can You See a Specialist
Today in Russia you can get a medical aid and services:
- In a public health centre
- In private medical centres
- At a private doctor
Our advice, do not advertise the fact that you’re having an STI. People may react negatively and it can stain your reputation. Carefully ask your friends did they use to get an STI and where they got a medical treatment. Speak as though a friend of yours has such a problem and you’re inquiring an advice for them. Try a recommended hospital. If the option is not suitable for you, go to a health centre or any medical centre.
Public Health Centre
There you will need your passport and an insurance policy. If you presume, you have an STI see a Dermatologist. Local residents can get medical services for free apart from some medical and testing procedures.
Seeing a doctor in a specialized medical centre is the easiest and most reliable way. The centers are nowadays in any town. Specialization and big experience in diagnostics make the option the best. Doctors will efficiently diagnose the disease and prescribe a quality treatment. The services are chargeable. On visiting the medical centre inquire if it has a license and what services the centre can provide according to it. An official price list is to be shown.
Today a very rare group of doctors. A very good option too, since a private doctor values their reputation. His prices may be higher then in private medical centers.
Behavior in a Doctor’s Office
A doctor will ask you about complaints and a date you think you got the infection or have felt the symptoms. You should clearly describe the complaints. If you have discharges say their amount, colour and time; if pain, describe it and show location on the body. Say if the pain connected with urination or intercourse. The time you got an infection is a very useful information. Do not be shy if you have had a casual sex or a fling, if the sex was oral or anal. The information you give will help doctor diagnose a disease correctly.
All body’s skin surface should be examined if syphilis is suspected. This include scalp, mucous membrane in the mouth, anal skin and genitals. If urinary infection is suspected, urethral opening, scrotum and prostate (rectal exam) are examined. In women, vaginal opening, urethral opening, uterine cervix (with a vaginal mirror) are to be examined.
What Tests Are to Be Done
Every sexually transmitted infection must be confirmed by a laboratory analysis apart from only two diseases - genital herpes and scab may be determined within a clinical examination. Doctor gets the main information speaking to the patient and on external inspection. Laboratory investigation refers to taking a smear to test it. Instrumental investigation is done using other medical instruments. Imaging investigation is used if the microorganisms are occult and not easily seen or detected.
Only a medical professional can correctly select testing method (taking smears, discharges, urine, semen, secretion or blood), necessary imaging diagnostics, diagnose disease and prescribe an effective method of treatment.
If syphilis is suspected, serological test is done. The blood sample is taken from vein. If ulcers and erosions on the mucous membranes are present, a dark field microscopy is done.
If suspected a urethral infection, a swab is taken from urethra in men and a smear from urethra, vagina and uterine cervix in women. The test will tell about the nature of an inflammation. The test cannot determine many bacteria so a study of the growth of bacterial culture and polymerase chain reaction, PCR (DNA-diagnostics) are to be done. It means many bacteria coexist. For instance, in biological combination of gonorrhea and chlamydia, gonorrhea is easily diagnosed by a smear test and chlamydia needs to be cultured or determined with PCR. Topical diagnostics is performed to determine what organ is affected by infection. During it urinalysis, urine sample in a glass, secretion and semen tests are done. Analyses for immune system are often performed. The test enables to determine an infection in uterine tubes in women, prostate and epididymides in men but it is not critical in determination of infection.
They are done for topical diagnostics of diseases and determination of complications. Usually ureteroscopy (investigation for ureter), colposcopy (investigation for vagina and uterine cervix) and ultrasound of prostate scrotum, vagina and uterine appendages are performed.
What Is Especially Required for Analyses
For taking smears from genitals and PCR men do not urinate within 1.5 to 2 hours and more and women do not go to toilet or have syringing in the morning. In testing for syphilis and using ELISA method no particular requirements. In semen analysis, avoid ejaculation within 3 to 5 days.
How STIs Are Diagnosed
Doctor analyses patients answers to his questions, exam and test data and diagnoses the infection. The diagnosis is to be done meeting the International Classification of Diseases. Along with the infection the affected organ is to be defined – whether it is urethra, vagina or bladder, and things.
What Treatment for a Particular STI is Prescribed
A method of treatment is prescribed according to the diagnosis by a doctor.